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Russet-winged Schiffornis (Schiffornis stenorhyncha)

Russet-winged Schiffornis is one of five species that formerly were united under the name Thrush-like Schiffornis (Schiffornis turdina); the other members of this group are Northern Schiffornis (S. veraepacis), Olivaceous Schiffornis (S. olivacea), Foothill Schiffornis (S. aenea), and Brown-winged Schiffornis (S. turdina). 

Russet-winged Schiffornis is a representative of this group that occurs from central Panama east across northern Colombia to western and northern Venezuela. All species in this group have similar, dull plumages, being primarily brown or olive brown, with paler underparts, and prominent large dark eyes. Although all members of the group also are poorly known, Russet-winged Schiffornis probably is one of the least studied members of the complex. This is a relatively low density species that occupies the understory of terra firme forests, most often foraging within 1-2 m of the ground, and typically is solitary. The clear whistled song is heard far more often than th…

Nocturnal Macro-Adventure - Featured species: Hourglass Treefrog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus)

Hourglass Treefrog or Pantless Treefrog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus), is a species of frog in the Hylidae family. On the Atlantic slope they occur in isolated populations in Chiapas, northern Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and northern Nicaragua. Starting in southern Nicaragua, its populations become more or less continuous through Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. On the Pacific slope, it occurs locally in Costa Rica and Colombia. From near sea level to 1,600 m (5,250 ft). 

This species is beautifully patterned by yellow and brown curvy blotches, with yellow spots on brown areas, and brown spots on yellow areas. Typically has a cream to pale yellow lip stripe that is broadly expanded below each eye, and a brown mask that extends posteriorly, covering the eardrums and continuing onto the body. 

This is a common and widespread species of humid lowland forests. Like other tree frogs it is nocturnal and its activity peaks during periods of rain, although individuals can be found nearly year-round in appropriate habitat.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, pastureland, plantations, heavily degraded former forest, and ponds.

They spend the dry season in the forest canopy. Once the rainy season begins, they descend to temporary ponds which have flooded with rain water. The hourglass treefrog reproduces differently from most other frogs. It can lay its eggs on land or in water, depending on the environment. If it has shade, it will lay them on leaves of plants above the pond. If it has little or no shade, it will lay them in the water, usually attached to submerged vegetation. If eggs are laid above a pond, tadpoles will hatch and drop into the water below. Tadpoles also show predator-induced plasticity in their tail colour when exposed to dragonfly nymphs.

It is very adaptable, and has been found in very open landscapes in Costa Rica. The major threats are likely to be deforestation for agricultural development, illegal crops, logging, and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.


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